The elevator consists of a cabin or a vertical cage in general, and the cabin supports a parallelogram structure that allows directing and supporting the cabin, and guidance is carried out through various elements.
The fixed part (cabinet rails, weight rails).
Two guides along the cabin path and others on the sides of the cabin. These guides are usually T-shaped, as were previously used guides in the form of circular tubes.
Usually (48 or 50 mm diameter) some laws such as urban planning and housing laws require replacement due to rusting conditions inside the pipes.
This elevator with cable and motor travels along the guides with an inclination of the vertical is less than (15 degrees) and the speed governor brake is a safety system in which two people installed in the cabin install the guides to stop the movement.
The moving part (Guide Shoes): It is the fixed part that depends on the guides during the movement of the cabin. They are regularly lubricated to reduce friction and noise, and in some cases they can be replaced with small wheels (diameter from 80 mm to 200 mm),
Just like in cabins with high speed or heavy loads.
Engine / Speed
Elevators in classic apartment buildings, warehouses and car parks have typical speeds from 0.6 m/s to 2.5 m/s, or about 2 to 9 km/h.
In addition, elevators have speeds proportional to the height of the towers or skyscrapers:
3 m/s, i.e. one floor every second (11 km/h) between 15 and 30 floors.
4.5 m/s or 1.5 floors per second (16 km/h) between 20 and 40 floors
6 or 7 m/s i.e. two floors per second (22 km/h) between 35 and 100 floors (56 storeys Montparnasse Tower, Laduvence)
9 m/s or 3 floors.
Elevator safety systems.
Elevator safety systems can be one of our priorities, through which we establish and provide security systems for elevators to control access to security controls, including those concerned with preventing unauthorized access from entering the protected areas of the facility.
Safe elevators, do not worry, and they are equipped with systems for the stability of their safety, which are as follows
The main elevator components (control – cabin – motor – internal and external doors – rails).
Availability of means of assistance and communication in the machine room.
The basis for the stability of the elevator is the presence of a counterweight.
The presence of devices ensures that the counterweight does not come out during the operation of the elevator or strike the speed governor.
Presence of counterweight anti-collision devices in case the weight bearings break.
100% safety factor to test the traction ropes.
A 3-phase breaker must be available to ensure the elevator works efficiently.
The presence of a monitor for the phases in the control panel.
Safety chain circuit monitor in the control panel.
The electrical insulation of the cabin must be completed to ensure that elevator users are not subjected to electric shock in the event of a leak.
All electrical connections are fully insulated with a highly insulated plastic layer.
The presence of load sensors ensure that the elevator stops in case of overloading.
The presence of door sensors to prevents the cabin door from closing on its users and operating automatically.
Buffers are equipped with an electrical device that cuts the current in the event of a free fall of the cabin.
Marking the traction ropes to facilitate access to the nearest role manually in case of emergency.
To obtain elevator licenses, safety conditions, measures and plates must be met to be approved.
Installing a telephone at the back of the cabin to ensure proper communication in emergencies situations
Fire buttons are installed in the control room or guard room in case the elevator was used when a fire broke out.
Installing a rope locking device that doubles the safety of the ropes in the event of a break in one of them
The presence of ropes barriers with a height of 5-40 cm, prevents tools and dirt from falling over the cabin to maintain its safety.
The presence of a device against jamming of foreign objects stuck between the tires and the traction ropes.
The impossibility of separating the movement of the machine in the event of an increase in voltage, load or temperature in the cabin in front of one of the doorsteps.
In the event of disconnecting the electric current from the elevator, do not completely disconnect the cabin fan.